hadoop hdfs架构原理与高可用机制

HDFS架构原理


hdfs架构图

Block

1、数据被切分成固定大小的数据块(默认128M在hadoop2.x)可以自己设置;如果数据不到128M,则单独就放到一个block块里。

2、一份数据如果由多block块组成,这些block块是存在不同的节点上的;每一个block的副本也是存在不同节点上的,默认3个副本。

3、Block大小和副本数通过Client端上传文件时设置,文件上传成功后副本数可以变更,Block Size不可变更。

NameNode

1、主要功能:接收客户端的读写操作。

2、保存数据的metadata信息,metadata信息包括:文件owership和permissions;文件包含哪些块;Block保存在哪个DataNode(由DataNode启动时上报);

3、NameNode启动后加载metadata的信息到NameNode的内存中,metadata存储到磁盘上就是fsimage文件,但是这个文件中的信息不包含block的位置信息,block的位置信息是在NameNode启动后由DataNode汇报的,实时的。edits文件记录对metadata操作的日志信息。

SecondaryNameNode

1、它不是NameNode的备份,但是可以做部分备份。它的主要工作就是帮助NameNode合并edits日志文件,减少NameNode的启动时间。

2、SecondaryNameNode执行合并时机:一个是配置文件里面设置时间间隔fs.checkpoint.period,默认3600秒即1小时;一个是配置文件里面设置edits日志文件大小阈值fs.checkpoint.size来规定edits文件的最大值,默认最大值是128M。

3、合并流程


edit日志合并流程图

1、当到达合并时机时,首先滚动生成一个新的日志文件edits.new,这个日志文件是空的;
2、然后SecondaryNameNode去拉取edits和fsimage到自己的本地;
3、然后进行edits和fsimage文件的合并,合并成fsimage.ckpt【ckpt应该是checkpoint的缩写】文件;
4、然后再传输给NameNode;
5、此时,NameNode将edits.new文件重命名为edits文件,将fsimage.ckpt文件重命名为fsimage文件。

DataNode

1、DataNode是block块的存放节点,也就是真实数据的存放节点。

2、启动DataNode进程后会向NameNode会报block块的位置信息。

3、DataNode通过向NameNode发送心跳来保持联系,默认3秒一次,如果超过10分钟NameNode没有收到DataNode的心跳信息,那么NameNode会认为这个DataNode已经lost了,会copy其上的block到其他DataNode上。

HDFS写流程

1、首先客户端向NameNode发送要上传文件的请求,NN就找几台磁盘和cpu都比较空闲的机器给客户端返回过去。这里依据block块的副本分布来返回机器,返回几台就由你设置的副本数决定。

2、返回机器后客户端就去和这些机器建立数据通道,然后开始传输第一块数据。注意这一块数据是同时往这三台机器上去写的,如果写的时候出现问题,但只要有一台机器成功就可以了,因为之后NN可以去异步的做副本的复制。当写第二块block时再重新走一遍流程即可。

HDFS读流程

1、首先客户端向NN发送下载某个文件的请求,然后NN就通过元数据信息知道这个文件的每一个block块包括副本block的具体位置,NN将这个信息返回给客户端。

2、客户端找第一个block块离自己最近的机器开始建立数据管道,进行下载数据,这个block下载完之后,再下载下一个block块,直到整个文件下载完。

HDFS安全模式

NameNode启动的时候,会进行上次的edits和fsimage文件的合并,在内存中合并完之后,就会将这些数据保存到fsimage文件中,并且重新创建一个空的edits文件。此时NameNode就处于一个安全模式中。

在这个模式中hdfs处于只读状态,写、删除、重命名都会失败。在此阶段NameNode会收集DataNode的汇报的信息,包括block块的位置信息、心跳信息等 ,当数据块的副本数大于等于设定的副本数的时候,就认为是安全的,如果一定比例,这个比例可以设置,数据块认定是安全的。

那么再过一段时间,安全模式就会结束。如果副本数不够,NameNode会进行副本的复制,直到到达正常副本数。

HDFS高可用机制

hdfs的高可用主要就是实现NameNode的高可用。


hdfs高可用原理图

1、edits日志文件每一次修改都会同时在journalnode上进行修改,只要有一半以上的journalnode修改成功就算成功,所有的jn都需要有这个edits文件。

2、备用的namenode会及时检测到jouralnode上的edits文件发生变化了,然后更新自己的edits文件。这样就保证了数据的同步。然后备用的namenode还起到合并edits和fsimage的作用,合并完之后发送给active的namenode。

3、datanode会同时向active和standby的namenode发送文件的位置信息及心跳

4、failovercontroller负责监控这两个namenode,并向Zookeeper注册NameNode,如果一个namenode挂了,挂了的这个机器的zkfc会删除zk上的active锁,然后另一个zkfc就知道了,然后ZKFC为NameNode竞争锁,获得ZKFC 锁的NameNode变为active。再变为active之前,会发送消息来强制关闭一下那个挂了的namenode让它死挺。并且保证namenode的集群里只有一个active的namenode,防止脑裂(就是有多个active的namenode)。如果出现两个namenode都是备用,那就是failovercontroller的原因,看看它是否启动。

5、journalnode的上下线以及配置文件都是交由zookeeper进行管理的。

问题:

为什么zookeeper就能做namenode的主备切换,hdfs还去写个failovercontroller进程来做这件事情?

我的想法是应该是zookeeper的功能还不能满足namenode做高可用,有一些其他功能zk没有,所以hdfs就写一个功能更全、个性化的failovercontroller,来和zookeeper一起使用。例如:手动切换hdfs主备的功能,通过failovercontroller的命令就可以实现,可以用于HDFS的升级场景。

这只是我的个人见解,希望有人能给出更合理的解释。

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  93. Palms down, Apple’s application retailer wins by means of a mile. It is really a huge preference of all sorts of purposes vs a pretty unhappy decision of a handful for Zune. Microsoft includes courses, specifically within the realm of video games, nevertheless I’m not sure I’d require in the direction of wager upon the long run if this feature is crucial in direction of you. The iPod is a a great deal much better conclusion within just that scenario.

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  101. Zune and iPod: Most All those look at the Zune toward the Touch, but soon after observing how thin and amazingly tiny and gentle it is, I attempt it in the direction of be a rather special hybrid that combines properties of either the Touch and the Nano. It is very vibrant and beautiful OLED screen is a bit smaller than the touch screen, nevertheless the player alone feels rather a bit scaled-down and lighter. It weighs regarding 2/3 as significantly, and is noticeably scaled-down in width and top, When getting basically a hair thicker.

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